The Tlatelolco Treaty, which bans nuclear weapons in Latin America signed in 1967 and is still in force, was the great legacy of diplomat Alfonso García Robles, the least known Mexican Nobel Prize winner of the three in the country.
García Robles won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982; the second Nobel Prize for Mexico was Octavio Paz who won the Literature Prize in 1990 and the third was Mario Molina, who was awarded the Chemistry Prize in 1995.
García Robles’ work consisted of promoting and promoting the consolidation of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America in 1967.
On February 14, 1967, the signing of the Treaty of Tlatelolco was opened, which prohibits the development, acquisition, testing and deployment of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Treaty is considered an important contribution of Mexican diplomacy to international peace and security, which arose during the Cold War era as a response to the threat of a possible direct confrontation, in the Caribbean Sea, between the United States and the then Union. Soviet.
As president of the Preparatory Commission for the Denuclearization of Latin America, and commissioned by President Adolfo López Mateos (1958-1964), García Robles led the meetings that were held in Mexico City from 1964 to proscribe nuclear weapons in Latin America .
The agreement made Latin America and the Caribbean the first densely populated region free of nuclear weapons.
In recognition of this diplomatic milestone, García Robles received, at the age of 71, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982, a distinction that he shared with the Swedish Alva Myrdal.
José Alfonso Eufemio Nicolás de Jesús García Robles, full name of the diplomat, was born in the city of Zamora, state of Michoacán, on March 20, 1911, and died in Mexico City on September 2, 1991.
He graduated in Law from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and later did postgraduate studies at the Institute of High International Studies of the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris (1936).
He also studied a diploma at the Academy of International Law in The Hague, Holland in 1938 and a year later he entered the Mexican Foreign Service as third secretary of the legation in Sweden.
After his commission in the Treaties of Tlatelolco, García Robles was appointed ambassador of Mexico to the UN from 1971 to 1975 and presided over the Group of 77, a group of developing and under-developed countries with the common objective of helping each other. , sustain and support each other in the deliberations of the UN.
In 1976 he was appointed Secretary of Foreign Relations by President Luis Echeverría (1970-1976) and in 1977 he was the permanent representative of Mexico in the United Nations Committee on Disarmament in Geneva.
A year later he was president of the Mexican delegation in the First Special Session for Disarmament of the UN General Assembly and in 1981 President José López Portillo (1976-1982) appointed him Ambassador Emeritus.
Then, in September 1982, he was awarded the Mexican Foreign Service Decoration and a month later, in October 1982, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
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Alfonso García Robles, a little-known Mexican nobel