The 2021 Nobel Prizes were unveiled from October 4 to 11. In total, five categories were awarded a Nobel (medicine, physics, chemistry, literature and peace), as well as a prize from the Bank of Sweden in economics. Find, below, all the winners in each category.
The Nobel Prize for Medicine
It was awarded Monday, October 4 to two American researchers, David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, for their explanatory work on the functioning of the nervous system in relation to temperature and touch.
The 2021 #NobelPrize in Physiology or Medicine has been jointly awarded to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.” pic.twitter.com/gB2eL37IV7
– The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 4, 2021
“The groundbreaking discoveries of this year’s laureates have enabled us to understand how heat, cold and mechanical force can initiate the nerve impulses that allow us to perceive and adapt to the world around us,” said the Academy. to explain the reason for this victory.
The Nobel Prize in Physics
For the first time since 1995, this Tuesday, October 5, he rewarded two climate change specialists. The first is the American-Japanese Syukuro Manabe (90 years old) for his work published in the 1960s on the greenhouse effect. The second is the German Klaus Hasselmann (89 years old) for the reliability of his work on climate models.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 2021 #NobelPrize in Physics to Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi “for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex physical systems.” pic.twitter.com/At6ZeLmwa5
– The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 5, 2021
The prize is also shared with a third scientist, the Italian Giorgio Parisi (73) for his research on “the discovery of the interaction of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from the atomic scale to the planet scale” , detailed the jury meeting in Stockholm (Sweden).
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
This award went to two 53-year-old specialists for the independent development in 2000 of asymmetric catalysis, also called organocatalysis.
– The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 6, 2021
The concept is simple: replace the two traditional catalysts, namely metals and enzymes, by proline, which groups together small organic molecules. Proline has a triple advantage: its ease of use, its low cost and its ecological aspect.
The Nobel Prize for Literature
It was awarded this Thursday, October 7 in Stockholm to the Tanzanian novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah for all of his work, described by the jury as “empathetic and uncompromising of the effects of colonialism and the fate of refugees caught between cultures and continents” .
His first three novels, “Memory of Departure” (1987), “Pilgrims Way” (1988) and “Dottie” (1990), evoke the experience of immigrants in contemporary British society. His fourth novel, “Paradise” (1994), is set in colonial East Africa during World War I and was shortlisted for the Booker Prize, a British literary prize.
The 2021 #NobelPrize in Literature is awarded to the novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah “for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents.” pic.twitter.com/zw2LBQSJ4j
– The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 7, 2021
“I started to write casually, in a certain anguish, without any idea of a plan but in a hurry by the desire to say more,” said the writer.
The Nobel Peace Prize
The 2021 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded this Friday, October 8 at 11 a.m. to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov, “for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a prerequisite for democracy and lasting peace ”.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize to Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace.#NobelPrize #NobelPeacePrize pic.twitter.com/KHeGG9YOTT
– The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 8, 2021
58-year-old Maria Ressa is a Filipino-American journalist and author. In 2012, she confused the free information website Rappler, of which she is the editor-in-chief. Prior to this experience, Maria Ressa served for nearly two decades as a senior investigative reporter in Southeast Asia for CNN.
For his part, Dmitry Muratov is a Russian journalist, editor-in-chief between 1995 and 2017 of the most independent Russian newspaper, Novaya Gazeta. The Committee to Protect Journalists defines it as “the only truly critical newspaper with national influence in Russia today”.
THE NOBEL OF ECONOMY
The last Nobel Prize 2021 was awarded this Monday, October 11 to 3 North American specialists in experimental economics, namely the American-Canadian David Card (65 years), the American-Dutch Guido Imbens (58 years ) and American-Israeli Joshua Angrist (61).
The 2021 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel has been awarded with one half to David Card and the other half jointly to Joshua D. Angrist and Guido W. Imbens.#NobelPrize pic.twitter.com/nkMjWai4Gn
– The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) October 11, 2021
According to the jury, the winners brought “new ideas to the labor market and showed what conclusions can be drawn” through “natural experiments”
“Their approach has spread to other fields and has revolutionized empirical research,” concluded the committee of the prize awarded since 1969.
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Nobel Prize 2021: here are the winners in each category