Nobel Prize 2021: here are the winners in each category

The 2021 Nobel Prizes were unveiled from October 4 to 11. In total, five categories were awarded a Nobel (medicine, physics, chemistry, literature and peace), as well as a prize from the Bank of Sweden in economics. Find, below, all the winners in each category.

The Nobel Prize for Medicine

It was awarded Monday, October 4 to two American researchers, David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, for their explanatory work on the functioning of the nervous system in relation to temperature and touch.

“The groundbreaking discoveries of this year’s laureates have enabled us to understand how heat, cold and mechanical force can initiate the nerve impulses that allow us to perceive and adapt to the world around us,” said the Academy. to explain the reason for this victory.

The Nobel Prize in Physics

For the first time since 1995, this Tuesday, October 5, he rewarded two climate change specialists. The first is the American-Japanese Syukuro Manabe (90 years old) for his work published in the 1960s on the greenhouse effect. The second is the German Klaus Hasselmann (89 years old) for the reliability of his work on climate models.

The prize is also shared with a third scientist, the Italian Giorgio Parisi (73) for his research on “the discovery of the interaction of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from the atomic scale to the planet scale” , detailed the jury meeting in Stockholm (Sweden).

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry

This award went to two 53-year-old specialists for the independent development in 2000 of asymmetric catalysis, also called organocatalysis.

The concept is simple: replace the two traditional catalysts, namely metals and enzymes, by proline, which groups together small organic molecules. Proline has a triple advantage: its ease of use, its low cost and its ecological aspect.

The Nobel Prize for Literature

It was awarded this Thursday, October 7 in Stockholm to the Tanzanian novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah for all of his work, described by the jury as “empathetic and uncompromising of the effects of colonialism and the fate of refugees caught between cultures and continents” .

His first three novels, “Memory of Departure” (1987), “Pilgrims Way” (1988) and “Dottie” (1990), evoke the experience of immigrants in contemporary British society. His fourth novel, “Paradise” (1994), is set in colonial East Africa during World War I and was shortlisted for the Booker Prize, a British literary prize.

“I started to write casually, in a certain anguish, without any idea of ​​a plan but in a hurry by the desire to say more,” said the writer.

The Nobel Peace Prize

The 2021 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded this Friday, October 8 at 11 a.m. to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov, “for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a prerequisite for democracy and lasting peace ”.

58-year-old Maria Ressa is a Filipino-American journalist and author. In 2012, she confused the free information website Rappler, of which she is the editor-in-chief. Prior to this experience, Maria Ressa served for nearly two decades as a senior investigative reporter in Southeast Asia for CNN.

For his part, Dmitry Muratov is a Russian journalist, editor-in-chief between 1995 and 2017 of the most independent Russian newspaper, Novaya Gazeta. The Committee to Protect Journalists defines it as “the only truly critical newspaper with national influence in Russia today”.

THE NOBEL OF ECONOMY

The last Nobel Prize 2021 was awarded this Monday, October 11 to 3 North American specialists in experimental economics, namely the American-Canadian David Card (65 years), the American-Dutch Guido Imbens (58 years ) and American-Israeli Joshua Angrist (61).

According to the jury, the winners brought “new ideas to the labor market and showed what conclusions can be drawn” through “natural experiments”

“Their approach has spread to other fields and has revolutionized empirical research,” concluded the committee of the prize awarded since 1969.

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Nobel Prize 2021: here are the winners in each category

Hank Gilbert